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The term ‘real estate’ is defined as land, including the air above it and the ground below it, and any buildings or structures on it. It is also referred to as realty. It covers residential housing, commercial offices, trading spaces such as theatres, hotels and restaurants, retail outlets, industrial buildings such as factories and government buildings. Real estate involves the purchase, sale, and development of land, residential and non-residential buildings. The main players in the real estate market are the landlords, developers, builders, real estate agents, tenants, buyers etc. The activities of the real estate sector encompass the housing and construction sectors also.


It is difficult to estimate the exact contribution of the real estate sector to gross domestic product (GDP) as it appears in a disaggregated and dispersed form in the National Accounts Statistics. Residential housing and real estate services (activities of all types of dealers such as operators, developers and agents connected with real estate) is covered under the category ‘real estate, ownership of dwellings, business and legal services’. The gross value added in the ownership of dwellings is equivalent to gross rental of the residential dwellings less cost of repairs and maintenance. Gross rental is estimated as a product of average gross rental per dwelling and the number of census dwellings and includes imputed rent of owner-occupied houses.


The real estate sector in India has assumed growing importance with the liberalisation of the economy. The consequent increase in business opportunities and migration of the labour force has, in turn, increased the demand for commercial and housing space, especially rental housing. Developments in the real estate sector are being influenced by the developments in the retail, hospitality and entertainment (e.g., hotels, resorts, cinema theatres) industries, economic services (e.g., hospitals, schools) and information technology (IT)-enabled services (like call centres) etc. and vice versa.

Influenced by changes in consumer expectations, in society opinions and in technology developments